Monday, September 22, 2008
Friday, September 19, 2008
ICTnews - Máy tính là khởi động chậm khiến người dùng khó chịu. Đây là một số cách giúp cho máy tính dùng hệ điều hành Windows XP khởi động nhanh hơn.
Tắt những dịch vụ khởi động không cần thiết
Chạy cùng với các chương trình hệ thống lõi của Windows khi khởi động còn có một loạt dịch vụ. Một số cần cho Windows XP hoạt động, nhưng cũng có nhiều dịch vụ dành cho những tính năng có thể bạn không cần đến, có thể tắt bỏ. Nói chung, càng ít dịch vụ, Windows XP khởi động càng nhanh.
Để tắt bớt dịch vụ chạy lúc khởi động, bạn có thể làm hai cách: Cách đầu tiên là vào System Configuration Utility (Start/Run, gõ msconfig, nhấn OK). Thẻ Services cho thấy các dịch vụ chạy hoặc tắt khi máy tính khởi động. Bạn có thể tắt dịch vụ chạy khởi động bằng cách bỏ dấu kiểm của dịch vụ đó, rồi nhấn OK.
Cách thứ hai là truy cập mục quản lý các Services. Cách này được nhiều người áp dụng hơn vì giao diện của nó cung cấp nhiều thông tin và mô tả rõ hơn về chức năng của các dịch vụ. Có hai cách mở mục quản lý các Services: vào Control Panel/Administrative Tools/Services hoặc chọn Start/Run, gõ services.msc, rồi nhấn OK.
Trong mục quản lý Services, bạn nên lưu ý đến cột Startup Type. Thông tin cột này liệt kê cho thấy dịch vụ đó chạy tự động (automatic) hay tự chỉnh (manual). Các dịch vụ tự chỉnh chỉ khởi động trong Windows XP khi bạn khởi động quy trình yêu cầu dịch vụ đó. Một số quy trình khác có thể yêu cầu dịch vụ đó trong trường hợp có liên hệ phụ thuộc, trong trường hợp này dịch vụ phụ thuộc cũng sẽ khởi động. Bởi vì các dịch vụ tự chỉnh không tự động chạy khi bạn khởi động Windows XP, nên bạn không cần làm gì với các dịch vụ tự chỉnh.
Tuy nhiên, tất cả các dịch vụ được liệt kê là tự động (automatic) trong cột Startup Type sẽ chạy khi Windows XP khởi động. Như trên đã trình bày, nhiều dịch vụ trong số đó là không cần thiết, do đó bạn có thể dừng các dịch vụ tự động trừ khi bạn không biết hậu quả của việc tắt dịch vụ đó. Bạn có thể lấy thông tin về dịch vụ bằng cách nhìn vào cột Description. Dưới đây là một số dịch vụ bạn có thể dừng chạy lúc máy tính khởi động:
Cập nhật tự động (Automatic Updates): Dịch vụ này để cho Windows XP tự động kiểm tra khi máy tính nối mạng internet để cập nhật. Nếu không muốn dùng Automatic Updates, bạn có thể tắt bỏ dịch vụ này. Bạn có thể tự lên trang web của Microsoft để cập nhật cho Windows.
3 dịch vụ gồm trình duyệt máy tính (Computer Browser), DHCP Client và DNS Client có thể tắt nếumáy tính không kết nối mạng.
Error Reporting and Event Log: Tắt dịch vụ này cũng không sao, nhưng nó có thể có ích khi máy tính trục trặc (nhất là với các chuyên gia hỗ trợ kỹ thuật), vì thế bạn nên để cấu hình tự động.
Fax: Nếu bạn không dùng máy tính để fax, có thể tắt dịch vụ này.
Help and Support: Nếu bạn không dùng Windows XP Help and Support Center (cũng có trên trình đơn Start), có thể tắt bỏ dịch vụ này.
IMAPI CD-Burning COM: Dịch vụ này cho phép ghi CD trên máy tính. Nếu bạn không ghi CD hoặc đang dùng phần mềm ghi CD chuyên dụng, có thể tắt bỏ dịch vụ này.
Indexing Service: Máy tính dùng dịch vụ này để chỉ mục file nhưng nếu bạn chẳng mấy khi tìm file thì dịch vụ này coi như thừa. Bạn có thể tắt và chuyển sang chế độ tự chỉnh.
Infrared Monitor: Nếu bạn không dùng các thiết bị hồng ngoại, có thể tắt dịch vụ này.
Messenger: Cho phép gửi tin cảnh báo trên mạng LAN (không giống như Windows Messenger). Nếu bạn không dùng mạng, có thể tắt dịch vụ này.
Print Spooler: Nếu bạn không in từ máy tính, có thể tắt bỏ dịch vụ này. Nếu cần in, nên để ở chế độ tự động.
Remote Registry: Cho phép người dùng từ xa sửa đổi Registry. Nếu bạn không dùng mạng, có thể tắt dịch vụ này.
System Restore Service: Dịch này cho phép bạn dùng System Restore. Nếu bạn đã tắt System Restore, không cần tắt dịch vụ này nữa.
Windows Image Acquisition: Nếu bạn không dùng máy quét (scanner) hoặc máy ảnh số, có thể tắt dịch vụ này.
Wireless Zero Configuration: Nếu không dùng các thiết bị nối mạng không dây, có thể vô hiệu dịch vụ này.
Ngoài ra, có thể còn có một số dịch vụ tự động khác tuỳ thuộc vào phần mềm và cấu hình trên máy tính. Vì thế, tốt nhất nên kiểm tra kỹ các dịch vụ. Nếu bạn kích đúp vào một dịch vụ, hộp thoại Properties xuất hiện. Trên thẻ General, ở mục Startup Type, nếu bạn muốn thay đổi dịch vụ tự động sang chế độ tự chỉnh, chọn Manual, nhấn OK. Thường thì mọi người không tắt bỏ dịch vụ trừ khi biết chắc là sẽ không bao giờ dùng đến. Tuy nhiên, cấu hình tự chỉnh sau này nếu bạn thấy cần dịch vụ đó thì lại chuyển sang tự động, như vậy giúp tăng tốc khởi động. Trước khi thay đổi dịch vụ sang chế độ tự chỉnh, hãy nhìn vào thẻ Dependencies. Thẻ này chỉ cho bạn thấy những dịch khác phụ thuộc vào dịch vụ bạn đang muốn thay đổi.
theo PC Mag
source from www.
Tuesday, May 6, 2008
Each of these women has an illness—lupus, breast cancer, bipolar disorder—she wouldn’t admit to anyone … until now.
“She has cancer,” I told my 14-year-old, who wondered why one of her teachers had not returned to work for the new school year.
“Will she be OK?” she asked.
“Well, no,” I said. “She may not live much longer.” I’d just learned that the teacher had been sick for a year and had kept her condition from everyone but a few colleagues. This sudden and devastating news, which spread quickly through the school’s network of mothers and was followed up in a poignant letter from the school soon thereafter, had hit like an emotional atomic blast. No one knew. No one even suspected.
“I understand she’s sick,” my daughter said, “but why would she want to hide it?”
Why, indeed? Aren’t we the gender that talks more and listens better? We usually happily share information, even private information. Why, then, do some women keep mum when illness enters their lives? Here, secret keepers reveal the very personal reasons they hid an illness or condition—and what inspired them to finally spill the beans. And one woman explains why she’s still not telling.
The “don’t call me sick” secret
Breast cancer, a belligerent and unexpected houseguest, arrives on the doorsteps of more than 175,000 American women’s lives every year. But when the threshold belongs to a woman who has made healthy living the cornerstone of her life, that knock on the door may also bring shame—and secrecy.
“I was a real health nut,” says Katreese Barnes, a musician in New York City. “I was judgmental of people who ate foods that weren’t organic or drank water that wasn’t filtered. I felt they were living their lives out of balance.”
When a routine physical exam in 2000 turned up a problem, Barnes was surprised. “The doctor said, ‘You’ve got to get a mammogram today,’” she remembers. “The radiologist was sad-faced.”
Barnes had ductal breast cancer. “Weeks later, I had a biopsy,” she says. “And then I had to have a lumpectomy.”
At the border crossing from healthy to ill, she was horrified at the irony. “Because I’d been so preachy prior to finding out I had cancer, this, for me, was a walk of shame,” Barnes says. She kept her diagnosis secret from everyone except her parents and brother. And—a mere four days after her lumpectomy—she showed up for the new gig she’d landed just before her diagnosis: pianist for the famed on-set band of Saturday Night Live. “I wanted to function as a well person,” she says. “I wanted to work through it. And I did, even when the pain from the lumpectomy lasted for months.” In fact, at holiday time, a classic SNL arrangement of “Jingle Bell Rock” required Barnes to hammer a chord over and over at a rapid-fire pace. But she never let a soul know how much it hurt, much less why it hurt.
Barnes’s cancer returned a year later. “I thought, I’m going to work. I’m not going to be one of those musicians with a disease who needs fund-raisers. There were times, even during the show, when something would trigger a nerve and make me want to cry. But I hadn’t told anyone I had cancer, so I had to keep shifting the focus.”
She tried several different treatment regimens and had regular mammograms until, finally, her readings were clear. Then Barnes slowly let her bandmates know about her illness. Now the pianist is the musical director at SNL, and she’s not above holding her now-public health struggles over her fellow musicians’ heads. “People show up late to work because they have the sniffles,” Barnes says, laughing, “and I say, ‘Hey, I’ve never been late. And I had cancer.’”
TIME.COM: Hormone Use Linked to Cancer Risks
The “you won’t like me anymore” secret
When Susan Crickman started feeling under the weather in 2001, she watched her husband respond with frustration and impatience. That scared her even more than her extreme fatigue and joint pain. Formerly a divorcée with two young children, Crickman was newly remarried to a prominent lawyer in Fredericksburg,
Virginia, and she wanted everything to be perfect. Being sick for more than a year and eventually being diagnosed with lupus (a painful and fatiguing autoimmune disease that affects as many as 1.8 million women) wasn’t part of the plan.
“Even after the diagnosis, I never even said the word lupus to him,” she remembers. “We were an up-and-coming couple. I’d built the office for his law practice. I was afraid he’d think, I married this beautiful wife. We have this great life. Now she has lupus. I was afraid he’d leave me.”
In fact, Crickman went into a deep depression the day after she was diagnosed. “I hid in my bedroom for a week,” she says. “We had a gun collection that my husband had inherited from his father. And I told him to get all the guns out of the house. I said it was because the kids were getting older. But the real story is that after my diagnosis I was completely suicidal.”
Meanwhile, Crickman also kept her diagnosis from her children, afraid they’d equate a serious medical condition with that of their grandfather who’d recently died. “I didn’t want my kids to be worried all the time,” she says. But they were. Her 10-year-old son “would sneak into the room just to make sure I was breathing,” she says.
Then she and her husband started fighting constantly. “I was tired of him screaming at me about why I wasn’t doing the things I used to do. In 2005, I told him to get out. He went and lived with his mother for three weeks."
Soon after, Crickman told her husband and children she had lupus. And after a close friend died, the couple decided to reconcile. Life wasn’t an instant bed of roses, but everyone has learned to cope—“we’re doing it together,” she says.
CNN.COM: Autism's mysteries remain as numbers grow
The “it’ll hurt my career” secret
Lupus’s sudden flare-ups can make the simplest tasks herculean and render many women unable to work—and afraid to tell employers for fear they’ll lose crucial health insurance. “A company will find any way to get rid of you,” says Mary Anderson (not her real name), 27, who was diagnosed with lupus a year ago.
Anderson’s job as a manager for a laboratory in Las Vegas doesn’t place many physical stresses on her, but there are days she knows her lupus compromises her job performance. Her position requires traveling, and her meds sometimes make driving difficult, even dangerous. And, on top of bone-weary fatigue, Anderson struggles to focus amid the lupus fog. “It’s quite overcoming,” she says. “I’ve been in the middle of doing something and completely forgotten what I was supposed to do. It doesn’t happen often, but it happens enough that I wonder if I should be on disability.”
For now, Anderson is keeping her job, holding off fears that she’ll suddenly be viewed as unworthy of employment. “People start to feel sorry for you, feel you can’t do this or that,” she says. “Because I’m in the beginning of my career, I don’t want the stigma.”
Although she attends a lupus support group, Anderson guards her secret on the job. “I regret that people can’t understand what I’m going through,” she says. “I feel plowed under. But news travels, and I can’t take the risk of someone who may have power or influence over my career finding out. I have to work. I have to keep my insurance.”
And yet. Ruth Blanc, 33, another lupus patient who’d kept her diagnosis secret, found herself suddenly stepping into the light of disclosure—with profoundly positive results. During a remission, she got a human resources position at a New York City–based nonprofit agency, and her first flare-up created suspicion and concern among her supervisors and co-workers. “They said, ‘What happened to you? When we interviewed you, you were vivacious. Now you sound groggy. Are you stressed out?’” Blanc maintained she was fine. “I should have said, ‘No, I’m not fine,’” she says, “but I thought that would make them look for something and maybe even fire me.”
Blanc weathered a hospitalization for another flare-up, but then her world shifted. A year later a new employee in another department suggested that the company participate in a lupus walk. The reason? She had lupus. “My mouth fell open,” Blanc remembers. “I thought, Maybe I should let her know I have lupus, too.” But she kept quiet until a company luncheon for the walkathon. “At lunch, we were going around the room talking about why we were supporting the walk. When it was my turn, I said, ‘I have lupus.’ The words were flying out of my mouth.” Blanc’s unexpected outing of her deepest secret landed on soft, supportive ground. “Everyone was so understanding, so compassionate,” she remembers.
Newly energized, Blanc networked to get better medical care. She also began reading up on her disease, and in March she participated in Lupus Advocacy Day in Washington, D.C. Blanc credits the arrival of that co-worker as a life-changing moment: “She said to me, ‘Ruth, if you’re hiding it, only you know how much you’ve suffered. You can help someone else by telling your story.’”
The “don’t judge me” secret
Growing up in a small Connecticut town, Elizabeth Wageley was hospitalized multiple times for depression, panic attacks, and self-injury. Finally, at age 14, she received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. She told one teacher. No one else. “People judge,” she says. “Everyone knows everyone else in my town, and word spreads so fast. I wanted to be a normal girl.”
CNN.COM: Harry Potter author considered suicide
When Wageley went off to college, she finally saw her opportunity to open up about her illness. With classmates coming from all over, the provincial scrutiny she’d felt faded. “I decided in advance,” she says. “I told one of my friends.”
At work, Wagely made the same decision. “I told one woman, and she and I ended up having a two-hour conversation about our families, about mental illness. I was blown away that I could talk about this. I feel more comfortable now. I realize that if people judge me about this, then they have a problem.”
Now 18 years old, the college student still treads cautiously. Her longtime boyfriend knows. Her friends know. But when she looks into the future, privacy still figures into her landscape. “It boils down to who I’m dealing with,” she says. “If they’re mean and ignorant, I don’t want to tell them. If they’re a kind, understanding person, it’s probably a go.”
Cindy Chandler, 50, has had trouble finding kind, understanding people with whom she wants share her complex medical history. Plus, like many women, she’d been raised not to burden others with bad news. But it was hard to hide because her chronic Lyme disease affected her in lots of ways, including causing painful, lesion-covered skin.
While working for a moving company near her hometown of Smyrna, Georgia, she was asked to leave the home of a client who felt nervous that Chandler’s skin would somehow affect the materials she was helping to pack. On another job, co-workers speculated that her skin lesions were AIDS. “I knew people were talking about me at the water cooler,” she says, “but I didn’t want to go through the whole story of Lyme disease and what it is and does.”
Eventually, after more than six months of dating, Chandler told the man who is now her fiancé. And her “bad news” didn’t burden him one bit. He rallied in ways she had never expected, offering both emotional to financial support. One day of blood tests, she says, can run as much as $2,400. “He takes care of me,” she says. “He’s solid gold.”
source from www.health.com
Monday, April 28, 2008
Khoảng 10-20% trường hợp liệt dương có nguyên nhân từ tâm lý. Lo lắng, mặc cảm tội lỗi, sợ thất bại khi quan hệ tình dục... đều có thể làm các quý ông "không lên được".
Tình trạng suy giảm chức năng tình dục ở nam giới được các bác sĩ đánh giá thông qua một số chỉ tiêu: Mức độ, khả năng thực hiện ham muốn tình dục; chất lượng và độ dài của một lần quan hệ; khoảng thời gian hồi phục để sẵn sàng cho lần tiếp theo.
Một số bác sĩ chia mức độ bất lực thành 4 nhóm:
- Bất lực hoàn toàn: Bệnh nhân vẫn còn khát khao chuyện ân ái nhưng khi vào cuộc, dù dùng mọi biện pháp kích thích thì “thần đèn” cũng không sao gượng dậy được.
- Suy yếu: Nhóm bệnh nhân này hằng tháng hoặc nửa năm vẫn không hề có hứng khởi về “chuyện ấy”. Đôi khi họ phải cố chiều bạn đời nhưng cũng chẳng gặt hái được thành công gì, ngược lại, còn gây mệt mỏi và sự chán nản.
- Trên bảo dưới không nghe: Lúc hứng khởi thì “thần đèn” lịm tắt, còn lúc không cần thì tự dưng trở dậy gây phiền toái.
- Chưa đi đến chợ đã tiêu hết tiền: Đôi khi, vừa mới lâm trận, chỉ cần tác động nhẹ cũng khiến “thần đèn” bùng cháy và rồi gục ngã tại chỗ.
Các nguyên nhân gây bất lực
Do tình trạng sức khỏe: Các bệnh về tim mạch như xơ vữa động mạch, tăng huyết áp, bệnh tim, cholesterol cao... là nguyên nhân chính dẫn đến liệt dương ở một nửa nam giới độ tuổi trên 50. Các bệnh mạn tính như thận, xơ gan... cũng liên quan đến bệnh này. Đặc biệt, khoảng 60% nam giới tiểu đường bị liệt dương.
Ngoài ra, các bệnh về hô hấp, nhiễm khuẩn và các bệnh thuộc cơ quan sinh dục ngoài cũng dẫn đến giảm khả năng hoạt động tình dục.
Do chấn thương, phẫu thuật: Những sang chấn ở khu vực tủy sống, tuyến tiền liệt, bàng quang, khung xương chậu hay chính dương vật sẽ làm tổn hại đến các dây thần kinh, làm mềm các cơ, mạch máu... và dẫn đến liệt dương. Việc phẫu thuật ổ bụng, tuyến tiền liệt, bàng quang... cũng có thể làm tê liệt một số dây thần kinh và mạch máu liên quan đến khả năng cương cứng của dương vật.
Do dùng thuốc chữa bệnh: Các thuốc chữa cao huyết áp, bệnh tim, chống dị ứng, an thần, trị co giật... có thể gây bất lực.
Do tuổi tác và tâm lý: Chứng liệt dương có thể xuất hiện ở mọi lứa tuổi, tuy nhiên tuổi càng cao tỷ lệ bệnh càng tăng. Các chuyên gia cho rằng tâm lý gây ra khoảng từ 10-20% các trường hợp liệt dương. Lo lắng, cảm giác tội lỗi là nguyên nhân chính, ngoài ra, hiện tượng chán chường, căng thẳng, thiếu tự tin, e sợ thất bại khi quan hệ tình dục cũng làm mất cảm hứng.
Do lạm dụng chất kích thích: Việc uống nhiều rượu ảnh hưởng tới khả năng sinh testosteron, hút thuốc lá làm giảm độ lưu thông máu, là tác nhân nguy hiểm gây chứng liệt dương.
Để điều trị chứng bất lực, cần ăn uống cân đối về thành phần dinh dưỡng, đảm bảo thời gian ngủ nghỉ hợp lý. Chế độ làm việc phù hợp, tránh môi trường độc hại và đặc biệt cần có sự động viên của người bạn đời. Việc dùng thuốc cần có sự thăm khám và hướng dẫn, theo dõi của bác sĩ.
source from skds
Saturday, April 26, 2008
Sex might be the last thing on your mind as you start thinking about cancer treatment options and cope with the anxiety that comes with a cancer diagnosis. But as you start to feel more comfortable with yourself during cancer treatment and afterward, you'll want to get back to a "normal" life as much as you can. For many women, this includes resuming sexual intimacy with their partners.
An intimate connection with a partner can make you feel loved and supported as you go through your cancer treatment. But sexual side effects of cancer treatment can make resuming sex more difficult. Find out if you're at risk of sexual side effects after cancer treatment and which treatments can cause these side effects.
Who's at risk of sexual side effects?
Women being treated for breast or gynecologic cancers are most likely to experience side effects that make having sex painful or difficult. But cancers anywhere in the pelvic region can cause these effects. Pelvic cancers include:
* Bladder cancer
* Cervical cancer
* Colon cancer
* Ovarian cancer
* Rectal cancer
* Uterine cancer
* Vaginal cancer
Treatment for each of these cancers carries the risk of causing physical changes to your body. But having cancer also affects your emotions, no matter what type of cancer you have. For instance, you may feel anxious and worn out about your diagnosis, your treatment or your prognosis. These emotions can also affect your attitude toward sex and intimacy with your partner.
What sexual side effects are most common?
The treatment you receive and your type and stage of cancer will determine whether you experience sexual side effects. The most commonly reported side effects among women include:
* Difficulty reaching climax
* Loss of desire for sex
* Pain during penetration
* Reduced size of the vagina
* Vaginal dryness
Not all women will experience these side effects. Your doctor can give you an idea of whether your specific treatment will cause any of these.
How does cancer treatment cause sexual side effects?
Cancer treatments that are more likely to cause sexual side effects include:
Many women experience a loss of libido during and after chemotherapy. Often the side effects of the treatment, such as fatigue, nausea, hair loss, and weight loss or gain, can make you feel unattractive. Side effects usually fade soon after treatment ends. But it may take time to rebuild your self-confidence to bring back your desire for sex.
Chemotherapy can cause a sudden loss of estrogen production in your ovaries. This can lead to symptoms of menopause, such as a thinning vagina (vaginal atrophy) and vaginal dryness, both of which can cause pain during penetration. Ask your doctor about what you can expect from your chemotherapy drugs, as some can cause permanent ovary damage. Depending on your cancer type, your doctor may prescribe estrogen replacement therapy — also called hormone therapy for menopause — to reduce the sexual side effects you experience. However, women with breast or ovarian cancer should discuss this carefully with their doctors, as some cancers are hormone sensitive. For these women, hormone replacement therapy should be avoided if possible.
Sexual side effects related to radiation therapy are most common in women receiving treatment to their pelvic area. Radiation to the pelvis causes:
* Damage to the ovaries. The amount of damage and whether it's permanent depends on the strength of your radiation treatments. Damaged ovaries don't produce estrogen. This causes symptoms of menopause, such as vaginal dryness or hot flashes. If you've already been through menopause, you likely won't experience such symptoms.
* Changes in the vaginal lining. Radiation therapy can irritate healthy tissue in its path. This can cause the lining of your vagina to become inflamed and tender. Penetration during sex may be uncomfortable during treatment and for a few weeks afterward. As the lining of your vagina heals, it may become thickened and scarred, causing your vagina to tighten and resist stretching during penetration. Your doctor might recommend using a vaginal dilator to prevent scar tissue from forming after radiation.
Talk to your doctor about what you can expect from your specific radiation treatments. Some side effects may be preventable. For instance, surgery to relocate your ovaries to another part of your body might spare them from the damage of radiation and preserve your fertility. Ask your doctor about your options.
Whether surgery affects your ability to have sex will depend on your type of cancer, where it's located and its size. Surgical procedures that are likely to cause sexual side effects include:
* Radical hysterectomy. Women with cervical cancer may opt for a radical hysterectomy to remove their uterus and related ligaments, as well as their cervix and part of their vagina. A shortened vagina usually doesn't change your ability to have sex, though it may take some adjustment. Women over 40 may also have their ovaries removed during this procedure. If you're premenopausal when your ovaries are removed, you'll experience menopause.
* Radical cystectomy. In this operation for bladder cancer, the surgeon removes your bladder, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, the front wall of your vagina and your urethra. Your surgeon reconstructs your vagina, though it may be shorter or narrower than it was before surgery. This can make sex painful. If you haven't been through menopause, removal of your ovaries will cause early menopause.
* Abdominoperineal (AP) resection. AP resection is used if you have colon or rectal cancer. Your surgeon removes your lower colon and rectum. Without the cushion of the rectum, you might experience pain in your vagina during penetration. Some women who have an AP resection also have their ovaries removed. If you're premenopausal, this will cause premature menopause.
* Vulvectomy. You may undergo vulvectomy if you have cancer of the vulva. Your surgeon removes the entire vulva, including the inner and outer lips, as well as the clitoris. These play a major part in sexual arousal in women. Removing the vulva and the clitoris can make the area less sensitive and make it harder for you to reach orgasm.
There isn't a clear link between breast cancer surgery and decreased sexual function, though women who undergo surgery to remove one or both breasts (mastectomy) may lose sensation in the breast region. Women who undergo breast-saving surgery (lumpectomy), rather than mastectomy, are more likely to enjoy breast caressing. You may also be self-conscious of your scars after surgery, which can cause a loss of libido.
If you have a hormone-sensitive cancer, you might receive hormone therapy through medications, such as tamoxifen, or through surgery, such as removal of your ovaries (oophorectomy). If your cancer is sensitive to hormones, these hormone-blocking therapies can be effective in shrinking or killing the cancer and can decrease the chance of a cancer recurrence.
Both medications and surgery for hormone therapy cause menopausal signs and symptoms, including vaginal atrophy and dryness. Removing your ovaries causes permanent menopause. Side effects of hormone therapy medications usually wear off after you stop taking them. Keep in mind though, that women taking hormone therapy for cancer usually take these drugs for five years or more.
What can you do to regain your sexual function?
Knowing what sexual side effects to expect before you begin your cancer treatment can help you be more prepared to deal with them as you go through treatment. If you experience sexual side effects, find out as much as you can about what's impeding your sexual function. This will help you feel more in control of the situation and help guide you to treatment options. You may also want to:
* Talk with your health care team. You might be embarrassed to talk about the sexual side effects you're experiencing, but don't be. Though talking about sex can be awkward, you'll never find a solution if you don't let someone know what you're experiencing. Write down your questions if it makes you feel more comfortable. In addition, your doctor may be embarrassed or hesitant to talk about sex. If this is the case, ask to be referred to a specialist or seek support from other members of your health care team, such as nurses and counselors.
* Talk with your partner. Let your partner know what you're experiencing and how he or she can help you cope. For instance, you might find that using a lubricant eases your vaginal dryness or changing positions helps you avoid genital pain during sex. Together you can find solutions to ease you back into a fulfilling sex life.
* Explore other ways of being intimate. Intercourse isn't the only option for closeness with your partner. Consider spending more time together talking, cuddling or caressing. Connecting in other ways might help make you feel more comfortable and less anxious about the sexual side effects you're experiencing.
* Talk with other cancer survivors. Your health care team might be able to steer you to a support group in your town. Otherwise, connect with other cancer survivors online. If you're embarrassed about discussing sex face to face with strangers, the online environment provides you anonymity. Start with the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivors Network.
It may simply take time for you to regain your sexual function after cancer treatment. While that can be frustrating, remember that if you had a positive and satisfying sex life before cancer, you'll likely resume that after your treatment.
source from www.cnn.com
Thursday, April 24, 2008
It's never too early to start talking to your children about sexual matters. Openness, even with young children, will show that sex is an acceptable topic of conversation. Teach your child that you are available to discuss sexual issues, and establish a comfort level — for both of you — with the topic.
Don't feel like you have to include everything in one big discussion. Instead, talk about questions and behaviors as they occur.
Toddlers explore themselves
Between the ages of 18 months to 3 years, children begin to learn about their own bodies. Teach your child the proper names for sex organs. Otherwise, he or she might get the idea that something is wrong with these parts of the body.
It's normal for a child to explore his or her body and to do what feels good. Self-stimulation is one way a child's natural sexual curiosity is manifested. Boys typically pull at their penis, and girls rub their external genitalia.
The concept of privacy
This may be a good time to teach your child about privacy. Masturbation is a normal, but private, activity. If your child suddenly starts masturbating in the middle of a play group, try to distract him or her. If that fails, take your child aside for a reminder about the importance of privacy.
Sometimes, frequent masturbation can indicate a problem in the child's life. Perhaps he or she is under a lot of stress, or isn't receiving enough attention at home. It can even be a sign of sexual abuse. Teach your child that the parts of the body covered by a bathing suit are private, and that no one should be allowed to touch them without permission.
Curiosity about others
By the age of 3 or 4, children are ready to know that boys and girls have different genitals. To satisfy their normal curiosity about each other's sex organs, children may play "doctor" or matter-of-factly take turns examining each other. This exploration is far removed from adult sexual activity, and it's harmless when only young children are involved. As a family matter, however, you may want to set limits on such exploration, discouraging it if you see it going on.
At this age, many children ask the dreaded question: "Where do babies come from?" Try to give a simple and direct response, such as: "Babies grow in a special place inside the mother." As your child matures, you can add more details.
Segregation of the sexes
Between the ages of 5 and 7, children become more aware of their gender. Boys may tend to associate only with boys, and girls only with girls. In fact, they may even say they hate children of the opposite sex.
At this age, questions about sex will become more complex, as your child tries to understand the connection between sexuality and making babies. He or she may turn to friends for some of these answers.
Because children can pick up faulty information about sex and reproduction, it may be best to ask what your child knows about a particular topic before you start explaining it.
Children between the ages of 8 and 12 worry a lot about whether they are "normal." Penis size and breast size figure heavily in these worries. Children of the same age mature at wildly different rates. Reassure your child that he or she is well within the normal range of development.
What kids should know before they reach puberty
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that before they reach puberty, children should have a basic understanding of:
* The names and functions of male and female sex organs
* What happens during puberty and what the physical changes of puberty mean — movement into young womanhood or young manhood
* The nature and purpose of the menstrual cycle
* What sexual intercourse is and how females become pregnant
* How to prevent pregnancy
* Same-sex relationships
* Activities that spread sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), in particular AIDS
* Your expectations and values
Be honest, open and matter-of-fact
Talking about sexual matters with your child can make you both feel uncomfortable and embarrassed. Let your child guide the talk with his or her questions. Don't giggle or laugh, even if the question is cute. Try not to appear overly embarrassed or serious.
If you have been open with your child's questions since the beginning, it is more likely that your child will come to you with his or her questions in the future. The best place for your child to learn about relationships, love, commitment and respect is from you.
source from www.cnn.com
Tuesday, April 22, 2008
Kids are always getting stomachaches and rashes. But headaches? Strictly for grown-ups, right?
Wrong. The majority of school-age children get headaches, and many have headaches on a recurrent basis. Even before entering school, roughly one-third of children experience a headache at some point.
You know the pain is real, but what can you do? Find out what's triggering your child's head pain and identify measures you can take to help.
What causes children's headaches?
A number of factors, singly or in combination, can make your child headache-prone. These factors include:
* Genetic predisposition. Headaches, particularly migraines, tend to run in families. If you have a family history of bad headaches, your child will have a higher risk of getting them too.
* Head trauma. Accidental bumps and bruises can cause headaches. Although most head injuries are minor, seek medical attention right away if your child falls hard on his or her head. Also contact a doctor if your child has a steadily worsening headache after a bang on the head.
* Illness and infection. Headache is a frequent symptom of many common childhood illnesses. Ear infections, sinus infections, colds and flu are often accompanied by headache.
* Environmental factors. Conditions in the environment, including weather changes, odors, loud noises and bright light all can cause headaches.
* Emotional factors. Peer pressure, school problems and parental expectations can lead to high levels of stress and anxiety. Children with depression may complain of headaches, particularly if they have trouble recognizing feelings of sadness and loneliness.
* Certain foods and beverages. The food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG), found in such foods as bacon, bologna and hot dogs, has been known to trigger headaches. Also, caffeine, which is in soda, chocolate, coffee and tea, can cause headaches.
* Sleep deprivation. Overtiredness may cause headaches in children.
* Inadequate hydration. Lack of fluids can also cause headaches.
What kind of headache does your child have?
Headaches are typically hard to describe, especially for children. Some headaches are related to stress, while others are the result of an illness or injury. All headaches, though, are classified into two main categories — primary and secondary.
Primary headaches develop by themselves rather than as a result of illness or injury. Headaches in this category include:
* Tension-type headache. Often stress related, this type accounts for many children's headaches. If your child has this type of headache, he or she may complain of a tightening or pressure in the head, neck and skull muscles.
* Migraine. Approximately 10 percent of school-age children experience migraines. Before children reach puberty, migraines affect about the same number of boys as girls, but in the teen years, girls tend to have migraines more often than boys do. While a migraine lasts, it may be disabling, causing not just pain but nausea, vomiting and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Unlike tension-type headaches, migraines often occur during nonstressful or recreational times.
* Cluster headache. This is the least common type of headache in children. It's usually disabling and involves a sharp, stabbing pain on one side of the head.
Secondary headaches result from some underlying condition such as:
* Head trauma
* Sinus infection
* Strep throat
* Ear infection
* Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ) and other jaw-related problems
* Medication side effects
Is your child's headache chronic?
Because children's headaches have many possible causes, each child needs a personal evaluation. As a rule of thumb, though, your child should see a doctor if he or she starts having headaches on a weekly basis or has any episode of head pain bad enough to keep him or her out of school or other activities. Children who are too young to tell you what's wrong may cry and hold their heads to indicate severe pain.
Two common types of chronic headache are:
* Transformed migraines. This happens when an occasional migraine occurrence turns into a daily occurrence.
* Rebound headaches. This can result from overusing certain over-the-counter and prescription medications for chronic tension-type headaches.
How do doctors diagnose chronic headaches?
Doctors diagnose most chronic headaches after taking a detailed medical history and performing a neurological exam.
Occasionally, this work-up suggests that an abnormality in the brain or skull may be responsible for a child's headaches. In these instances, imaging tests, usually performed in hospital radiology departments, can pinpoint the problem. The most common imaging techniques are:
* Computerized tomography (CT). A CT scan is a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a series of computer-directed X-rays to provide a comprehensive view of the brain.
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI doesn't use X-rays. Instead, it combines magnetism, radio waves and computer technology to produce detailed images of the brain.
Preventing children's headaches
A few simple measures will prevent all but the occasional headache in a child:
* Insist on adequate rest. Young children and adolescents need plenty of sleep — eight to 10 hours minimum. On the flip side, too much sleep can cause headaches, so don't let your child sleep the day away.
* Provide a healthy diet. Make sure your child eats breakfast, lunch and dinner and has healthy snacks to choose from throughout the day. Also, make sure your child drinks enough water, particularly in hot weather and after strenuous activity.
* Take steps at the first sign of a headache. If you think your child is developing a headache, encourage him or her to take a nap — if possible, in a dark, quiet room.
* Keep a headache diary. Note times and places that headaches occur. Also describe any thoughts, behaviors or events that occur with headaches. Use information from the diary to help your child avoid possible headache triggers. Wait for the child to volunteer that he or she has a headache rather than soliciting the symptom.
* Avoid stressors. Be alert for things that may be causing stress in your child's life, such as difficulty doing schoolwork or strained relationships with peers. If your child's headaches are linked to anxiety or depression, consider talking to a counselor.
Baseline prevention consists of a predictable daily routine, adequate rest, and healthy meals and snacks. Over time, the items you note in the headache diary should help you understand your child's symptoms and take specific preventive measures.
Treating children's headaches
Treatment depends on the type of headache. It may include:
* Behavior therapy. Stress- and anxiety-related headaches are often the culmination of several physical and emotional factors. If your child shows signs of stress — behavioral changes, eating and sleep disturbances, lack of interest in favorite activities — he or she may benefit from professional and peer counseling.
* Over-the-counter medications. Pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) relieve the immediate symptoms of mild headaches. Both ibuprofen and acetaminophen reduce fever too. Don't give aspirin to children under age 16 unless instructed to do so. Aspirin has been linked to Reye's syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition in children.
* Prescription medications. Ergotamine and the triptan medications, such as sumatriptan, zolmitriptan and rizatriptan, relieve migraines already in progress. Other prescription drugs, including tricyclic antidepressants, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and anticonvulsants, are taken regularly to prevent frequent and disabling migraines.
Remember, the medication strategy differs from child to child. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions. Keep these points in mind:
* Read labels carefully. Use only the dosages recommended for children, not adults. Some products come in infant, child and adult strengths but may look the same.
* Don't give doses more frequently than recommended.
* Ask about possible side effects of any medication.
Bottom line: If your child has chronic headaches, you can do more than simply surrender to the condition. Get help to find out how you can make a difference.
source from www.cnn.com